– People who
fought slavery and worked to end it.
– Someone who
gets paid to capture runaway slaves.
– A slave or
– The American Colonization Society was founded in 1816 to assist
free black people in emigrating to Africa. Its founders,
philanthropists and anti-slavery men, believed that blacks could never
be fully integrated into American society and that they would be
better off in Africa. There were many chapters of the colonization
society throughout northwestern
– Someone who helped
on the Underground Railroad.
free from restraint, control, or the power of another.
– Enslaved Africans who ran away from the plantation. A more accurate
term is “freedom seeker.”
Fugitive Slave Law of
Congress passed a new law in 1850 making it more difficult to protect
runaway slaves in the North. It gave slave owners the right to
retrieve their slaves. No proof was required; it took only an
accusation before a federal commissioner for an African American could
be returned to slavery. The law imposed heavy fines and imprisonment
on anyone who stood in their way. Underground Railroad activity
intensified after 1850 as African Americans, even those who were free,
migrated to Canada.
– The study of family history.
Pennsylvania Gradual Abolition Act of 1780 –
is the first state of the original 13 colonies to passes a gradual
emancipation law, substituting indentured servitude for slavery.
Slaves born before March 1 remain slaves for life; those born after
March 1 become indentured servants until they reach the age of 28.
– African term for community storyteller and keeper of its cultural
heritage and history.
– A person
who agrees to work for another for a set period of time. Slaves freed
Gradual Abolition Act became “indentured servants” until they reached
age 28. Unlike other indentured servants, they did not have a choice
in the matter. They were still considered property of the people who
– A southern term for slavery. Many southerners disliked the term
“slavery” and found ways to make it sound less harsh than it really
The promised land
– Another way of describing the free lands in
– Places on the Underground Railroad where freedom seekers could be
safe. People who lived there often supplied food, clothing and money
for their journey. “You will find friends there” meant you were going
to a safe house.
Society of Friends
religious sect, Quakers as they were called, who were among the first
to work for the abolition of slavery.
Underground Railroad was neither underground nor a railroad, but a
secret network of safe houses and antislavery activists - black,
white, and Native American - who helped slaves escape to freedom. The
Underground Railroad reached a peak from 1830 to the beginning of the
Civil War, though it was operating as early as the 1500s, when the
time the first African captives were brought to Spanish colonies in
the New World.
– Committees of free-black people who provided money, food, clothing
and shelter to fugitive slaves. Leaders in their communities, they
also organized churches and fraternal organizations.